debi di – must, have to
To express obligation as in to say that we must or have to do something, we use the phrase debi di, which is a borrowed expression from Spanish. Debi di can also be used for expectation. In either case, we treat debi di as if it was a modal verb which never changes and almost always starts off the sentence.
MODELU: debi di + future phrase
The following describe how to use debi di.
debi di – must, have to (obligation)
I maolek na estudiante debi di u fanestudia kada dia, hånao para i klas-ña yan cho’gue i che’cho’-ña.
The good student must study every day, go to his class and do his work.
Debi di bai hu falak i post office pa’go sa’ mahuchom agupa’.
I have to go the post office today, because it is closed tomorrow.
Debi di un famaisen antes di un hånao.
You must ask before you leave.
Debi di u ekungok yo’.
She has to listen to me.
Debi di ta osge i mañaina-ta.
We must obey our parents.
debi di – to be expected, supposed to (expectation)
Esta alas 8, debi di u gaigi si Antonia gi che’cho’.
It’s already 8 o’clock, Antonia should be at work.
Debi di u magraduha esta si Jesse.
Jesse should have graduated already.
Learning how to express likes and dislikes is a great way to show your fluency in Chamorro. To do this you say ya followed by a possessive pronoun. For example, -hu is the possessive pronoun “my” in Chamorro and usually follows a word. For example, “my car” is kareta-hu. The verb “to like” is somewhat irregular in Chamorro as it requires you to use a possessive pronoun as demonstrated below.
Ya-hu. I like.
Ya-mu. You like.
Ya-ña. He or she likes.
Ya-ta. We like. (inclusive)
Yan-måmi. We like. (exclusive)
Yan-miyu. You (all) like.
Yan-ñiha. They like.
To say you like an object, you simply use one of the phrases and then the object.
Ya-hu + OBJECT
To say “I like eggs”, you would say: Ya-hu chåda’.
Here are more examples:
Ya-ña si Maria åbas.
Maria likes guava.
Kao ya-mu titiyas?
Do you like titiyas?
To say that you like doing something, you would again use one of the phrases and then say use the completed form of a verb.
I like to dance.
Ya-hu umegga’ Netflix.
I like to watch Netflix.
I like to eat.
Kao ya-mu kumånta?
Do you like to sing?
To say that you don’t like something, you simply have to add the negator ti at the beginning of your statement.
I like bread.
Ti ya-hu pån.
I don’t like bread.
I like to sleep.
Ti ya-ña si George manestudia.
George does not like to study.
Ti yan-ñiha manekungok.
They do not like to listen
Kao ya-mu yu’?
Do you like me?
Vowel Harmony is a linguistic term that refers to the constraints that certain vowels have on what other vowels may be next to them. In Chamorro, the constraint is on the vowel i, which is the definite object marker.
The following sound changes occur in the first syllable of a word when it is preceded by i.
- When the first syllable of a word has an å:
tåsi (sea) –> i tasi
måta (eyes) –> i mata
låpes (pencil) –> i lapes
- When the first syllable of a word has an o:
kostat (sack) –> i kestat
tokcha’ (spear) –> i tekcha’
donne’ (hot pepper) –> i denne’
- When the first syllable of a word has an u:
uchan (rain) –> i ichanpulan (moon) –> i pilangupot (party) –> i gipot
The vowel/sound i also occurs in the preposition gi, meaning at/on/in, and the negator ti, so if a word is preceded by either of these words, the same vowel harmony rules apply.
gupot –> gi gipot (at the party)
gof (very) maolek –> ti gef maolek
Two expressions that we use to confirm stereotypes or preconceptions are:
- Guiya muna’fatto…
+ Reason for Behavior or Quality
- Basta ki…
These expressions are used in situations where people perform actions or display qualities that support a stereotype or a preconception about the group they belong to. These groups can be anything from race to geographic location, as long as some label can be applied. To make these comments is to state that the actions and/or qualities are to be expected from them due to the fact that they belong to that group. Though it may seem that these sentences would be used only in negative circumstances, this is not the case. They can be said to state a mere fact.
- He bought the cheapest shoes in the store! Hmph! Basta ki Chinu! (on the stereotype that Chinese are cheap)
- Wow, you know all these roads here on the mainland! Basta ki mapoksai sanlagu hao. (on the fact that the person was raised in the States)
- So, she was mean to you? Guiya muna’fatto hagan Bernadita. (nothing less should be expected of Bernadita’s daughter, implying that Bernadita is the same way)
The conditional mohon serves as a marker indicating that the proposed condition is more favorable than the current one.
Juan: Un chuli’i yo’ Pepsi? Coke mohon.
You got me a Pepsi? It should’ve been Coke.
Maria: Mana’i si Tito ni scholarship. Guahu mohon.
Tito was given the scholarship. It should’ve been me.
Mohon is also used to indicate hypothetical situations or situations that are now too late for their condition and their result to exist.
Chumochochu yo’ mohon yanggen mamahan hao nengkanno’.
I’d be eating if you had bought food.
Mafatto yo’ mohon Guam yanggen ti pumakyu.
I’d be arriving in Guam, if it didn’t storm.
Humugando yo’ mohon, lao gof malangu yo’.
I would’ve played, but I’m very sick.
Masisinek yo’ mohon yanggen guaha papet komun.
I would be taking a dump right now if there was toilet paper.
Because it is a conditional marker mohon is often used in conjunction with yanggen in the expression yanggen mohon.
Yanggen mohon humanao hao para i tenda, esta mama’titinas yo’ titiyas.
If you had gone to the store, I would be making titiyas right now.
Yanggen mohon hu tungo’ na gaige hao gi espitat, bai hu bisita hao.
If I had known you were in the hospital, I would’ve visited you.
When used in a question, mohon acts as a marker requesting an opinion.
Manu mohon na manggaigi?
Where do you think they are?
Ngai’an mohon na ta fanali’i?
When do you think we all should meet?
Håyi mohon manggana gi ileksion?
Who do you think won in the election?
When used in conjunction with who, what, when, where, why and how questions, mohon usually follows the question word.
Other expressions commonly used with mohon:
Ohala mohon ….
In rapid speech ohala is often pronounced as “ola”. The expression is used to confer a desire for an alternate condition.
Ohala mohon uchan. I wish it would rain. Or If only it would rain.